Before a few days, divulge of company of aircraft of Chinese bell essence already ground call in the air of industry of batteries of makings of use Yu Ran is constrictive machine product, cause all circles heat to discuss.
Forehead of ministry of vice-chairman of countrywide the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, science and technology grows 10 thousand steel, in " People's Daily " write civil say, new power car should expect industrialization key Xiang Ran in time to batteries car is extended.
One article lifts 1000 billow, especially hydrogenous fuel cell whether had industrialization requirement, industry dispute is very big.
From this, our just as well will look, in category of hydrogenous fuel cell, does industrialization return demand complemental what? We wait for necessary equipment besides constrictive machine, what to still differ?
01 what do we have?
Respecting fuel cell, most central data is proton communication film, activator, gas dispersive layer, and double plate. The technology with proton communication film, activator and dispersive layer certain course machines Cheng film electrode (MEA) , and the heart that velar electrode is fuel cell.
A. Proton communicates film
Proton communication film is velar electrode in most one of central components. Communicate film about proton, have 3 less important technology demands:
(1) indispensible have taller proton conductivity
(2) indispensible have enough low gas is soaked rate
(3) enough chemistry and mechanical fluctuation are had below locomotive environment
In international, motivation of Dong Yue group of college of industry of grain of place of Shanghai inorganic place, Dalian chemistry physics, Wuhan, Shandong, new source is proton communication velar secondary is developed and consume an unit. To the south of high mountain DF260 estrangement is exemple, velar ply is 15 micron, below state of open circuit potential wear is more than 600 hours, film surmounts 6000 hours in life of the movement below the premise that assures a function, time of dry wet circulation is surmounted 20000 times, lose AFCC (Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation, daimule - run quickly the joint-stock company with Ford) approbate, hired university of traffic of expert, Shanghai Professor Zhang Yongming to issue a technology to amount to mark award especially to Dong Yue. Current, this film once finalized the design the quantity is produced, 2 generation plan to produce can 200 thousand square metre, can satisfy at most annual the demand of 20000 full power FCV.
Activator with Pt (platinic) activator is given priority to. Chinese hydrogen can academician of expert Yi Baolian arrives in the Ceng Di in be being interviewed, low Pt activator is the direction of less important technology of fuel cell. The platinic dosage when a FCV under traditional car the time of the platinic dosage in 3 yuan of catalysis, reached a goal. And preparation carapace tectonic activator is a when reduce activator dosage invalid method.
In “ the support of project of plan of research and development of 935 ” key falls, dalian changes university of traffic of content place, Shanghai, Huanali to be versed in the famous delibrate orgnaization such as university of university, Beijing University, Suzhou obtained the halt of many sided.
Besides, the delibrate orgnaization such as Tsinghua university, Chongqing university, Xiamen university is right also the activator that be not Pt left to spread out delibrate, scored level sex gain. Although China is new-style activator, among them one local once surmounted commercial activator on function and fluctuation, but still half-baked quantity produces equipment.
C. Velar electrode
Velar electrode respect, if Wuhan manage is versed in infinite company finished new power to commercialize consumption already, produce once can arrive 5000 smooth rice, the level of electrode of the 2nd acting film that international develops and abroad commercialize difference of velar electrode rate lesser. Current, it is direction of less important research and development in order to develop technology of CCM of the orderly electrode that convert film, new generation.
D. Double plate
Double plate also is one of central parts of fuel cell. If according to function goes naming, can call “ ambipolar market report all the more of ” of board of take leave of is apt. Be based on the action of double plate, its are characteristic and indispensible hold function of a better electric conduction, heat conduction concurrently, extremely low gas is soaked rate, want to have adequate measure and enough strength, even anti-corrosive. Double plate bear is worn the heft of ministry of electric caboodle overall situation and capital, consequently, quantify low capital, gently, easy consumption, it is the detailed requirement of pair of double plate.
Look from the data, cent of double plate secondary is double plate of black lead double plate, metal double plate and complex material. Current, international is road of less important technology with developing report of metallic double plate to pile. Especially after Feng Tian Mirai rolls out report of cell of fuel of titanium radical double plate to pile, more determined the determination of direction of technology of double plate of industry development metal. The difficulty of double plate technology depends on shaping, solder, coating 3 crucial step.
Shanghai is treated attain new power deploys infinite company to rely on the technical effort at Shanghai traffic university, once captured double plate shapes, solder, coating 3 technologies difficulty, can finish double plate homebred change, batch changes consumption, the design produces per year a quantity to be able to amount to 500 thousand pairs, can apply for 1500 above FCV at most.
Can see by above, although technology of Chinese fuel cell and international first degree still has difference, but once preliminary the requirement that had industrialization.
02 what are we short of?
A. Lack market driving force
Market demand is the premise of industrialization, and industrialization is the cause that reduces capital. Fuel cell is relationship state the crucial technology with tectonic in the future motivation. If can be satisfied only small numerous demand, that is the waste of resource. But up to now, fuel cell did not find a very good use setting. Review the whole world, the gain space of fuel cell is extremely infinite also. Consequently, below the premise that does not have market dimensions, no matter be capital of research and development, data capital, control form cost, still be early days safeguard work for capital to drop very hard.
Change capital to cannot be reduced without dimensions, capital is not reduced do not have dimensions to influence the market more. The method defeating solution that this circulates to death is ground of do one's best disentombs demand, this admires the ability of Lai Yu entrepreneur and body: Discover the opportunity in the future, be brave in to throw nowadays.
B. Lack strategical capital
" dynamical technology is reactionary innovation act program (2016-2030 year) " the goal that advanced fuel cell: “2020 year cell of fuel of film of communication of the proton that finish (weigh PEMFC below) power source is fragmentary finish additional power input 50 ～ 100kW, fragmentary than power ≥300Wh/kg, report caboodle compares power 3000W/L above, use life 5000 hours. The report of a 50kW piles ” , complete life test of 5000 hours, only hydric charge is about to arrive about a hundred 10 thousand even of millions, consequently, develop fuel cell property, demand a few capital is devoted.
Fuel cell is long term investment, change character, of fuel cell gain profit belong to in the future. Consequently, what fuel cell lacks is the strategic investment of shortsighted. Of vigilance of demand of all the more is, if capital is foresighted,can meet produce “ to unplug the negative effect of seedling develop ” , turn unqualified electric lot to the market for example, can cause defect probably accident, besides restful hidden trouble, meet even misdirect society is right the acknowledge of fuel cell, go against fuel cell industry instead begin.
C. Be short of industrial catenary
The society divides the work nowadays detail of all the more, if fuel cell is a few enterprises only, and rather than an industry, that certainly will is small effect. Respecting industry catenary, we think of very easily to make hydrogen and Chu Qing. According to the data of Mirai, 100 kilometers are hydric expend a quantity to be 0.6 ～ about 0.7 kilograms. So hydric price uses capital with respect to what matter to an user directly. The composition of hydric price, make hydrogen, rarefied, store station of carry, hydrogenation is built affect with a lot of element such as operation, profit, include the deflection with metric hydrogenation even.
Did not make industrial chain, be besides market dimensions, another affects the main reason of fuel cell capital. Say easy to read and understandly probably: These data and yuan parts of an apparatus is not to be fuel cell to design only, can exist consequently on demand and function and capital all sorts of do not marry. If FCV is common,apply carbon fiber data to regard consumption as IV bottle (metalloid inside bravery twines gas cylinder completely) less important data, the capital of this kind of data is short-term inside capital can be reduced very hard.
03 how to do
A. Look for use setting
If fuel cell cannot find reasonable use setting, can meet capital is lack fidelity, devoid direction. Preamble mentions the orgnaization of fuel cell research and development of those international tips, may not is the optimum place of industrialization. They have ability to promote data and each project that report piles mark, perfect all sorts of actual, develop archetypal machine and project prototype …… even but this is not the abundant condition that reachs industrialization.
The setting of fuel cell, hydrogen of fluid of “ of application of example burden van + the combination of fuel cell ” , probably car of cell of special type fuel (be like forklift) . These are the use that entrepreneur is based on commercial smell place to develop, and rather than has blind faith in domestic differentiate. The premise of fuel cell industrialization is, find what must use fuel cell to use setting. The dominant position that discusses fuel cell solely does not have what assistance.
Use setting is appropriate, just have can invent the market. Had the market, just meet build dimensions, and it is under dimensions, inherent before achievement, can be achievement no longer. Everybody worries about the example the fuel cell dependence to noble metal catalyst, but take shape when it, make the industrial chain that Pt reclaims, this is anxious will not answer existence.
B. Him believe expert
If have the person that passes in advanced company job, would rather be in international task, just they still had contacted fuel cell in abroad, a lot of enterprises meet international company scramble for sth. But they understand even if really central technology, also will surely not promote fuel cell technology of China to new peak.
The technology is used, also want act according to actual circumstances. Demand technologist, more a series of influence element such as support of mechanism of demand technology group, research and development, capital, performance management. An enterprise, alter as a result of a certain expert very hard gene. These foreign him experts are very clear also perhaps, his value, come from the information at asymmetry more. To assure oneself profit, the thing overall that very few also somebody would rather master him is held in the palm.
We have our expert, on the journey of fuel cell research and development, went more than 10 years probably a few years, more important be, they more understand national condition, the proposal that offer has feasibility more.
On some conference, a German expert is in answer China enterprise one said when seeking advice: FürIhre China-Problem, sollten Sie Ihre Eigenen Chinesischen Experten Informieren (Chinese achievement, the expert that wants him China of ask for advice) . This word I very approve of.
C. Acute strategy
Above all, the strategy is made want act according to actual circumstances. China is annual a few but second birth motivation cannot get online, appeared a few abandon wind to abandon smooth picture. Whether can you electroanalysis with these electric energy certainly does water make hydrogen? As a temporary measure thinks commercial model holds water, but basis quality conservation, every consume 1 kilogram hydric, the water of place demand is 9 kilograms (practice is more) . Consequently not likely has those who abandon wind to abandon light in the center of appropriate electroanalysis water makes hydrogen, return demand to ponder an other place to have the source of water that goes to the lavatory amply.
Next, should begin see result. Begin clean motivation strategy to will surely have a tendency: In the future but the online rate of again vivid force a few promotion, this is meant abandon wind to abandon smooth picture to will increase. But second birth motivation generates electricity make hydrogen serve as to invest a project temporarily, indispensible thinking this element is opposite in the future the influence of economic model.
The 3rd, the strategy wants executable, cannot be hydrogen can and hydrogen can. Even if is Japan, also offerred the strategic way of ” of lay particular stress on of “ hydrogen report.
D. Establish industrial catenary
Production industry unlike Internet enterprise, because its weigh the characteristic of asset, very difficult short-term inside appear can the oligarch that the palm controls entire industry chain. Establish industrial catenary, already demand is dead set on, more demand actual strength.
Example fuel cell is fragmentary machine of medium central part pneumatics, what I think of the first times is that masters air the division force of technology of constrictive machine center. Superstition is not equal to a technology, the technology also is not equal to a product, each pace has a wide gap. If division force is entered, should take pen money to do poineering work than a few engineers rely on chart a few. Disentomb more such enterprise is entered, can greatly the process of catenary of industry of decelerate fuel cell.
What is industrialization? My understanding is the market that dimensions is changed, the product of standardization, specializationed division of labor, and reasonable commercial form 4 conditions. If use these 4 standards,come balance, the industrial pattern with fuel current and located cell is likened to primary, but the requirement that had preliminary industrialization.
Have good soil, ability breed gives good technology. Nevertheless, at present Chinese car is in charge of sectional feeling, point out like literary works of 10 thousand steel, short range other people of rental, city sheds public transportation, dual class, the market demand that the pure electric car such as line-haul cannot cover, it is the use setting of hydrogenous fuel cell certainly. This one government is how-to, with the differentiate of official industry, general difference. Additional, of basis China energy-saving pursue with road of technology of new power car, there will be market of cell of 5000 hydrogens fuel 2020, there will be 50 thousand market 2025. These element, what all up drives industrialization of hydrogenous fuel cell is germinant.